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5. Phrase

phrase. is a combination of syntactically connected words (Tom and Mary)

B.Iiyish, V.Zhermunsky, L.Bloomfield, V.Burlakova and many other linguists are of the opinion that phrase is any syntactically organized group of words only if the combinations of syntactically connected words are not form-markers of some grammatical category:

eg. have done (Present Perfect of the verb "do")

Phrases are not characterized by sentence stress or any intonation pattern, are of no communicative value.

Every lingual unit in any language has some potential ability towards combin-ability with other lingual units. This typical feature of the units is called valency. The term is derived from chemistry by the French structuralist L.Tesniere, who was the first to introduce verb valency in linguistics.The world known scholars V.Vinogradov and V.Admony classified valency into obligatory and non-obliga­tory. Obligatory combinability is necessary semantically and formally and is char­acterised by strong government. For example, the verb "to be" can't be used with­out any extension:

e.g. She is a student.

So according to the character of the arrangement of the words in the phrases we can differentiate the following types of them:

I. Coordinate (the elements are syntactically equal):

e.g. tea and biscuits

Coordinate phrases consist of two or more elements which are syntactically of the same rank but we can't say that they are equal and we are able to change their position because in a lot of coordinate phrases the first comes the element with less syllables (men and women). But if you are polite you should say "My teacher and I".

There is no nucleus in coordinate phrases. These phrases may be endless but practically there can be not more than 10-15 elements in one word combination (a man of over seventy, very bald, hatchet-faced, with a grey beard...)

II. Predicative (the subject and the predicate, they are interdependent): e.g. She is sleeping.I am very sorry.

Predicative phrases include the subject and the predicate, i.e. the elements forming a complete predicative line. They are interdependent grammatically and semantically.

III. Subordinate (the leading element and the rest depending on it): e.g. oral quiz awfully glad ran quickly

Classification of subordinate phrases according to the leading element (the leading element can be introduced by different parts of speech):

1) Noun phrases (the head word is a noun)a smart lawyer, 2) Adjectival phrases (the head word is an adjective), very beautiful

3) Adverbial phrases (the head word is an adverb) very suddenly well enough, 4) Verb phrases (the head word is a verb)

come here tell the truth

The head word may be also introduced by infinitive, gerund or participle; ac cordingly we have the following phrases:

a) infinitival to speak English, b) gerundial after reading booksc) participial seeing her seen at a

5) Pronominal phrases (the head word is a pronoun) all of them the other, 6) Numeric phrases (the head word is a numeral) three of us an easy first

7) Prepositional phrases (the head word is a preposition) It is not on the table but under it.

Subordinate phrases can be also classified acoording to the position of the dependent element into regressive and progressive phrases. In regressive phrases the dependent elements are placed before the leading word (left-handed dependent elements):

e.g. a difficult exam If the dependent elements follow the leading word (right-handed dependent elements) the phrase is progressive:

e.g. stories by Maugham We can. also differentiate phrases due to the syntactic functions of the depend­ent elements in the sentence: 1. Attributive a)regressive

smart teachers two girls annoyed woman Klrovohrad streets our speech answering studen ts

b) progressive

those present poems by Pushkin

2. Objective

tell the story-say to her

3. Adverbial (place, purpose, manner, time etc.)

a) progressive

enter the worn to stop to read speak perfectly come early

b) regressive

quickly effaced

 Types of syntactic connection in a phrase:

1) Agreement

this contest these contests

2) Government

collected test papers (the verb is always used with some extension)

3) Adjoining (the extension is used for emphasis)

He nodded. He nodded his head.

He noded silently.

He nodded his head silently.

4) Accumulation

The word order is fixed. We can't say "important these facts" or "these and important facts".

The variety of grammatical meaning in phrases world peace - peace all over the world

the lexical meanings of some phrases a dining-room table = a table for making meals

Shifting. of the stress a'Frenclr a black' bird's nest = a bird's nest which is black a blackbird's'nest = nest of a black coloured bird

In phraseology Mother earth = the planet on which we live

Two or more words expressing a single idea Security Council = the body of most prominent countries to discuss and preserve security

Phrases used for producing some humorous effect the umbrella man = a man with an umbrella

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