phrase. is a combination of syntactically connected words
(Tom and Mary)
B.Iiyish, V.Zhermunsky, L.Bloomfield, V.Burlakova and
many other linguists are of the opinion that phrase is any syntactically
organized group of words only if the combinations of syntactically connected
words are not form-markers of some grammatical category:
eg. have done (Present Perfect of the verb
Phrases are not characterized by sentence stress or
any intonation pattern, are of no communicative value.
Every lingual unit in any language has some potential
ability towards combin-ability with other lingual units. This typical feature
of the units is called valency. The term is derived from chemistry by the
French structuralist L.Tesniere, who was the first to introduce verb valency in
linguistics.The world known scholars V.Vinogradov and V.Admony classified
valency into obligatory and non-obligatory. Obligatory combinability is
necessary semantically and formally and is characterised by strong government.
For example, the verb "to be" can't be used without any extension:
e.g. She is a student.
So according to the character of the arrangement of
the words in the phrases we can differentiate the following types of them:
I. Coordinate (the elements are syntactically equal):
e.g. tea and biscuits
Coordinate phrases consist of two or more elements
which are syntactically of the same rank but we can't say that they are equal
and we are able to change their position because in a lot of coordinate phrases
the first comes the element with less syllables (men and women). But if
you are polite you should say "My teacher and I".
There is no nucleus in coordinate phrases. These
phrases may be endless but practically there can be not more than 10-15
elements in one word combination (a man of over seventy, very bald,
hatchet-faced, with a grey beard...)
Predicative (the subject and the predicate, they are
interdependent): e.g. She is sleeping.I am very sorry.
Predicative phrases include the subject and the
predicate, i.e. the elements forming a complete predicative line. They are
interdependent grammatically and semantically.
III. Subordinate (the leading element and the rest depending on it): e.g. oral quiz
awfully glad ran quickly
Classification of subordinate phrases according to the
leading element (the leading element can be introduced by different parts of
phrases (the head word is a noun)a smart
lawyer, 2) Adjectival phrases (the head word is an adjective), very
phrases (the head word is an adverb) very
suddenly well enough, 4) Verb
phrases (the head word is a verb)
come here tell the truth
The head word may be also introduced by infinitive,
gerund or participle; ac cordingly we have the following phrases:
infinitival to speak English, b) gerundial
after reading booksc)
participial seeing her seen at a
Pronominal phrases (the head
word is a pronoun) all of them the other, 6) Numeric phrases (the head word is a numeral) three of us an
Prepositional phrases (the head
word is a preposition) It is not on the table but under it.
Subordinate phrases can be also classified acoording
to the position of the dependent element into regressive and progressive phrases. In regressive phrases
the dependent elements are placed before the leading word (left-handed
e.g. a difficult exam If the dependent elements
follow the leading word (right-handed dependent elements) the phrase is progressive:
e.g. stories by Maugham We can. also
differentiate phrases due to the syntactic
functions of the dependent elements in the sentence: 1. Attributive a)regressive
smart teachers two girls annoyed woman Klrovohrad
streets our speech answering studen ts
those present poems by Pushkin
tell the story-say to her
3. Adverbial (place, purpose, manner, time etc.)
enter the worn to stop to read speak perfectly come
Types of syntactic connection in a phrase:
this contest these contests
collected test papers (the verb is always used with
3) Adjoining (the extension is used for emphasis)
He nodded. He nodded his head.
He noded silently.
He nodded his head silently.
The word order is fixed. We can't say "important
these facts" or "these and important facts".
of grammatical meaning in phrases world
peace - peace all over the world
meanings of some phrases a
dining-room table = a table for making meals
the stress a'Frenclr a black' bird's nest = a bird's
nest which is black a blackbird's'nest = nest of a black coloured bird
Mother earth = the planet on which we live
Two or more words
expressing a single idea Security Council = the body of most
prominent countries to discuss and preserve security
for producing some humorous effect the umbrella man = a man with an umbrella