- the categorial meaning of substance or thingness;
- the changeable forms of number (-s) and case ('s;
s'); the specific suffixal forms of derivation (-er/.or; -ist; -ess; -ee; -ity;
-dom; -ness; -ion; -ism; -ance; -ment);
- the substantive functions in the sentence (subject,
object, substantival predicate);
- combinability with articles, adjectives, verbs,
Nouns may be
classified into: common (general
meaning The man put his life at stake), proper (definite meaning, the name of a separate human being, animal, thing:
Mr.Brown la found
guilty); animate (
a woman), inanimate (а
book); countable (fault-faults), uncountable (milk).
nouns is expressed lexically:
- feminine - The girl quitted singing.
The man resented it.
- neuter -
Something emerged from behind the door. Could
a man? Sex-indicators:
boy-friend, girl-friend, landlord, landlady,
actor, actress, lion,lioness
Number in nouns:
Singular (fault) - plural
(faults); singular is more generalised, plural is always concrete.
Singular tantum (foliage)
- pluralia tan turn (trousers).
2 Forms may be interchangeable: He has no brains or
little brain. Rack your brains about it. He has something on the brain.
may be used
for stylistic purpose: a thousand
pities, full of
fears, the blue waters of Mediterranean.
metaphoric use of
the plural form: a
pain - suffering.
plural of suffering
brother brothers (sons of one mother)
brethren (members of one community)
Russian: зубы /во рту/ зубья
• a pause
(something will follow it);
Foreign plurals are more bookish than the
- formulae, formulas.
stylistic sphere of application:
- shoes - shoen (archaic or elevated);
You were always more of a realist than John (the
noun weakens the meaning of substance, approaches the adjective and
is modified by an adverbial of degree).
was quite a success (the noun is used to intensify the
given quality, compare with: Be was quite
Noun may approach adverbs: life long, dog tired, silver grey, etc.
He was stone
deaf to my request. Interactional uses of nouns ('intensifiers' )
1 wish -
I will not
New tendencies in using
of. money) understandings,
CASE in Nouns
morphological category which
denotes different relations of noun in
the sentence and thus, the relations must be introduced in the form of the noun itself. All the other means (prepositions, word
order) are not morphological, are not
the forms of case (llyish). The case theory was formulated by such scholars as
H.Sweet, O.Jespersen, A.Smirnitaky,
L.Barkhudarov and others.
opposition - Common: : Possessive - : : 's(s') is used with lifeless things as
well: a week's notice, 5 miles'
But 's is no longer the form marker of case (Mukhin, Vorentsova,
Oxford professor of poetry's
lecture.(phrase + 's)( The man
I saw yesterday's son .(attributive clause+'s). The category of case has
lost its morphological characteristic*
's(s') is the form marker of possessiveness
(in the broad sense)