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- the categorial meaning of process (finite and non-finite);
- the forms of the categories of person (first, second, third); number (-s for plurality); tense (present -s, past -ed, future shall/will); aspect (common/ non-continuous, continuous); vs. passive); mood (Indicative, Imperative, Unreal/Oblique: Problamatic and Contradicting reality);
- the function of the finite predicate, the mixed functions for non-finite verbs;
- combinability with nouns, adverbs, prepositions.
Verb has the categorial meaning of action or process (Blokh), dynamic,taking place at some time (Maslov).
We can say with little fear of exaggeration that learning a language is to a very large degree learning how to operate the verbal forms of the language.
Productive verb-building suffixes: -en, ify, ize
Non-productive: ate, er, ish
Compound verbs: microfilm
Conversion blackmail.
Notional verbs are characterized by full lexical meaning, expressing an action or process, are used independently:
Functional verbs serve primarily to indicate grammatical functions rather than to bear lexical meaning:
They may be classified into:
a) auxiliaries
b) link verbs:.
c) substitute verb: do
d) representing verbs: do, have,be
e) verb-intensifiers:
Modal Verbs express attitude of the doer to the action that is considered as possible, desirable, necessary, obligatory, etc.
Forms: can - could-, may - might must, shall, should, will,
would, ought to, need, dare, have/had to. Саn/could express ability (ее able to, be capable of, know how to), permission, possibility;, could - permission, possibility or ability in unreal conditions:
May/might express permission (be allowed to), possibility. Might - mostly possibility and rather rare permission:
Must expresses obligation or compulsion, logical necessity:
Shall expresses intention, willingness, insistence ,helplessness,perplexity, asks for instruction
Should expresses obligation,logical necessity:
Will expresses willingness, polite request, intention, insistence (no contraction!), prediction:
Would expresses willingness, insistence, characteristic activity, probability, violation, preference:
Tense - the time of the action. In objective reality we deal with present time (the moment of. the objective 'now'), past time (the time before 'now'), future time (the time afternow).
Many linguists are of the opinion that there are only 3 Tenses in all languages! Present, Past and Future (Ivanova, Jofik, Ilyish, Smirnitsky, Guirk, Leech etc.). But in our school text-books, in practical graxaar text-books (Ganshina, Vasilyev-skaya, Kaushanekeya, Rayevakaya, etc.). we can find another approach to the problem of Tenses: there are 12 tenses. The category of tense is expressed in the predicate. Perfect is a separate gram. category because it is characterized by a separate categorial meaning. Completion of the action.
Perfect - a most disputable complicated problem.
Different approaches to perfect:
1. a peculiar tense category (Sweet, Poustma, Onions, Kaushao-sksya, Israilevich,. etc.) (If the Perfect were a tense category, the Present Perfect would be a unit of 2 different tenses: the present and the perfect)
2. some specific aspective essence (Ivanova, Vorontzova, etc.) (A resultative aspect but I have lived in Kiev since 1969 - there is no result)
3. the category of time relation (Smirnitsky) (brings us back to the old view that perfect is a tense.)
4. the category of correlation (Smirnitsky, Ilyish). (quite acceptable as the perfect forms are marked both in meaning (denoting precedence) and morphological characteristics (have + Participle II)
Peculiarities of the usage of Perfect
1) in American and Briish English
2) the period of time isn't over He has rung up 3 tinea this mornings at 14 o'clock - He rang up 3 times this morning;
3) if there ia a combination S + Pbe + predicative (the + ordinal numeral, adjective in the superlative degree or N )
This is the first time that I have felt relaxed for months.
In colloquial English Perfect is used with markers of Past Indefinite She's moved long ago into a lovely cottage.
Well, we have done in the past, haven't we?
Bid you remind him of Major Smith or someone you've known yssrs ago?
Present Perfect ia widely used in colloquial style (questions and answers). In newspapers, letters and over radio and TV at the beginning of the report/letter Present Perfect (the main piece of news) and then (in detail) Past Indefinite:
Forms used in low colloquial in fiction, in native speakers'
1) only Participle II I seen the little lamp. (Mansfield)
Past Perfect
1. One action after another:
2 completion of the action
3.one person performs not simultaneous actions:
4. with adverbial modifiers if time
5. if you are mistaken or disappoint
is the form of the verb that serves to express the manner in which the action is performed. It shows whether the action is a single accomplished action or a continuous process (Gordon, Krylova, Leech and Svartvik, etc.). Aspect concerns the manner in which a verbal action is experienced or regarded: Form-markers of aspect: be + V ing Opposition: Duration: non-Duration
(Continuous) (Common) Aspect is clearly expressed in the Slavonic languages. Aspect in English and "Вид " in Russian or Ukrainian have different categorial meanings:
aspect - the manner in which the action is performed;
the qualitative limit/совершенный: несовершенны»/
Different terms used Continuous - Common (Indefinite), Progressive - Nonprogressive, Durative - non-Durative.
There are some peculiarities of the usage- of continuous forms:
1, future Continuous is used instead of Future Indefinite to avoid modal "will"!
I won't be seeing him again. Я не увижу его больше. I won't see him again, а) Яне хочу его больше видеть.
ъ) Я его больше не увижу.
2. to bе going + infinitive equivalent to Future Continuous): We are going to be showing this film in competition.
5. In colloquial speech The President is going to open the new school tomorrow. In newspaper a!
The President will open the new school tomorrow.
4. Present Continuous instead of"to be going + to come/go";
I am going (coming) to Moscow. Я собираюсь поехать /приехать/ в Москву.
5. Verbs not used in Continuous forms: contain, consist, possess, prefer, suppose, modal verbs,
But: Must, must, must. Who's musting me? (Dickens)
be + adjective - You are being very clever today.
Какой ты сегодня умныйbe + noun Or adjective: John is being a policeman.
Continuous active is used very often now instead of passive The coffee is making (the process of making coffee). Continuous form is used to indicate something unexpected
I was talking to the pupil the other day.
Over radio or TV when time permits. - Present Continuous is used, and to save time - Present Indefinite.
PolitenessWere you wanting to see someone? (most polite),
Shyness:I was thinking that you might need the book.
Present Perfect Continuous expresses incomplite actions: He has been eating my apples. ( съел часть).).
Present Perfect Continuous- Passive is rare: It's been being built for the past 2 years. ( строился).
The category of Mood has been investigated by Snirnitsky, Ilyiah, Yoronteova, Sarkhudarov, Ivanova, Vinogradov, and many other linguists.
The category' of Mood reflects the relation of the action denoted by the verb and reality from the speaker's point of viei We may wish to represent the action/process as follows:
1) a real fact:
2) a command or requests
3) something that does not exist in reality, something unreal, desired, hypothetical
Mood is introduced by the oppositions real vs unreal. Different opinions: there are 16 moods (Deutehbein), there is no Imperative Mood at all (Barkhudarov), etc.
Indicative Mood indicates the action as a real fact, it is characterised by the time of the action.
Imperative Mood expresses inducement of various degrees of insistence including commands, but the action itself is to take place in future.
Oblique Moods represent an action as something imaginary, unreal, desired, hypothetical. There is no straightforward mutual relation between meaning and form: 'I) one and the same form may have different meanings.
The verbal category of voice shows the relation between the action and its subject indicating whether the action is performed by the subject or passes on to it:
the opposition of voices active : passive.
The marker be + Ved (en). In colloquial speeah: be = get, become.
Reflexive Voice": V + self-pronouns I poured myself а cир of tea. The reflexive pronoun can be easily omitted: I poured a cup of tea. But there are verbs that are always used with reflexive pronouns:
I enjoyed myself.
"Reciprocal Voice": V+ Pr(reciprocal)
They kissed each other.
"Middle Voice"
The door opened.
The coffee is making. (Ruaaian: Дверь отворилась. Ukrainian: Двері відчинилися.)
There ia no form marker of "middle" Voice. Logically it is very difficult to imagine that the door can perform any action, but the verb "opened" has the form of the Active Voice (I opened the door). So we can distinguish only 2 voices in the English grammar: active and passive.
Active Voice: - the subject is the doer of the action:
Passive Voice:- the acton passes on to the subject: Passive Voice ia extensively used in English, much more often than in Russian or Ukrainian.
Reasons for ita extensive use:
1) Many English verbs (tell, give, offer, show, pay, grant,leave promise, lend, send, etc.) can have 2 objects (direct end indirect) and may have 2 passive constructions
2) passive isn't dependent on transitivity: She was listened to by everybody.
3) subjective predicative constructions are typical of English: She is said to be a smart student.
4) in constructions with formal "it+verbs" denoting mental, physical perception, suggestion, order, request, decision; or verbs of saying (say, announce, report, explain, think, know, understand, expect, feel, notice, propoae, require, demand, recommend, agree, determine, arrange, etc.):
It was explained
5) moat typical passive construction"V+O prepositional"
(to speak of, about,to; talk about,of; write about, comment on, look at, to, upon, after,for, into, etc.):
Very seldom: to take care of, make a fool of, get in touch with.
He was being made a fool of. Bather rare with verbs of sleep in, live in, sit in:
The bed had been slept in. Passive lacks the future Continuous form, the Future-in-the-Fast, Perfect Continuous Passive is very rare:
It has been being built for the past 2 years.
The possibility of Passive ie dependent on the meaning of the verb, its form and distribution:
Have 1) иметь - only active.
2) обмануть, перехитрить - only passive. Then we're been had.
3) a part of a phrase predicate - both active and passive:A good time was had by all. (Longman)
4) passive infinitive. free seats were not to be had. (Maugham)
5) V modal + Vpassive.Anything in the market can be had for the right price.
6) syntactic patterns of causative meaning: I had my photo taken.
7) get + Participle II. The window got broken.
8) Passive in infinitival, participial and gerundisl constructions:This is an event never to be forgotten.
9) to indicate the rheme or the theme: Our college was founded in 1930 by the local committee.
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