Grammar in the system of languages.
1. Grammar in the system of languages.
Language is a means of forming and storing ideas as reflections
of reality and exchanging them in the process of human intercourse. It is
social by nature. Language is a system of signs - meaningful units. ( Соссюр). It is a system of means.of expressions.
a) material units (sounds,
morphemes, words, word-groups);
b) regularities (rules) of
the use of these units.Language gives expression to
human thoughts. Speech is the manifestation
of the.system of language in the process of comnunication, the use of signs, the
act of producing utterances and the utterances themselves. In Speech the
potential meaning is made situationally significant as part of the
grammatically organized text. Linguistic levels
1. Phonological (determined
the material appearance of its significative units)
2. Lexical (the whole set of
naming means of languages: words, , word-groups);
3. Grammatical (the whole
set of regularities, determining the combination of naming means in the
formation of utterances).
Only the unity of the 3
levels form a language. Lingual hierarchy of levels.
The basic units of the lingual levels.
1. Phoneme - the smallest
distinctive unit, has no meaning, is not a aign (pig-big )
2. Morpheme -
a minimal meaningful unit (fault-s);
3. Word - the smallest
naming unit, a sign;
4. Phrase - a combination of
2 or more syntactically connected words;
5. Sentence - a predicative
unit, a sign of a situational event;
unity - a combination of separate sentences.
Practical grammar provides with a manual of practical mastery
of the grammatical rules.
Theoretical grammar - description of the grammatical system,
it scientifically analyses and defines
the grammatical categories, the ways the words are combined.
In theoretical grammar we
state some facts, analyse them from different angles, and try to explain them.
We deal with many theories, many approaches to one and the same phenomenon.
There are 2 planes of
languages content (comprises the purely semantic elements); expression
(comprises the material, formed units). Each formal unit has a meaning. No
meaning can be realized without some material means of expression. Each
grammatical element presents a unity of content and expression. Grammatical
meaning is typical of grammatical form. Grammatical form is typical of
grammatical meaning. One and the same form may express different grammatical
meanings. Grammatical category -
common features of a linguistic phenomenon of a certain class, having their
grammatical form and grammatical meaning, a complicated unity of grammatical
form and grammatical content (the category of number, mood, eto).
Grammatical category la a system
of expressing a general!* ed meaning by means of paradigmatic correlation of.
grammatical forms ( marked s : unmarked). Every grammatical oategory is
characterised by the opposition, the categorial meaning and the function. For
example, the category of number: plurality :: singularity, plurality : : non-plurality
Grammatical forms may be synthetical and analytical.
1. inflection (morphemic
changes without changing their lexical meaning: sentence, sentences,
2. suppletivity (combining
different roots: be, am, is/are, was/were ).
English inflection has been
gradually simplified. It has developed analytical tendencies. The features
of an analytical language:
I. few grammatical inflections
(case, degrees of comparison, 3rd person, singular, Present Tense, etc.)
2. a sparing use of sound alternations
3. a wide use of prepositions to connect words, to denote relations between
objects ( a man of wealth);
prominent use of word order (rather fixed i S+Pr+DO+IO+Adv.
Mod. "The woman accused the hoy of stealing books from the library").
An analytical form consists of two (or more) words but constitutes
one sense unit. One element has lexical eaning, the other - grammatical meaning
( I shall exchange it: shall – lst person, futurity, exchange – обменять)